A Complete Bibliography of Eric Berne’s Publications

This list was originally compiled and annotated by Robert Cranmer, 1971. Revised and expanded by Ann Heathcote, 2010. (Co-authored publications included at end of list.) Terrence Berne, Berne’s son, is also responsible for all the Eric Berne’s literary collection. Visit for more information.



Psychiatric Aspects of Porencephaly. American Journal of Psychiatry, 96, 723-731. Published under the name “E. Lennard Bernstein.”


Psychiatry in Syria. American Journal of Psychiatry, 95, 1415-1419. Published under the name “E. Lennard Bernstein.”


Who was Condom? Human Fertility, 5(6), 172-175, 186-?. Published under the name “E. Lennard Bernstein.”


The problem of masturbation. Diseases of the Nervous System, 5(10), 310-305.


The mind in action: Being a layman’s guide to psychiatry. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Second edition published in 1957 under the title, A Layman’s Guide to Psychiatry and Psychoanalysis; third edition published in 1968


The Nature of Intuition. Psychiatric Quarterly, 23, 203-226.

The first in Berne’s series of six articles on intuition.


Some oriental mental hospitals. American Journal of Psychiatry, 106, 376-383.


Cultural aspects of a multiple murder. Psychiatric Quarterly Supplement, 24,250-269.

A Filipino man “ran amuck” and killed five men. Why? The case is studied in terms of the murderer’s ancient tribal customs, childhood experiences, environment, and religious instruction.


Concerning the nature of diagnosis. International Record of Medicine, 165, 283-292.

Diagnosis is dependent, to some definite degree, on the use of intuition.  Examples of the use of intuition in diagnostics are given and the intuitive process is further analyzed.  The second in Berne’s series of six articles on intuition.


Concerning the nature of communication. Psychiatric Quarterly, 27, 185-198.

Any emission of energy which affects an organism may be called a communication, provided it is understood by the receiver. “Noise” often tells more to the receiver than does the “information.” The third in Berne’s series of six articles on intuition.


Principles of Group Psychotherapy. Indian Journal of Neurology & Psychiatry, 4, 119-137.

(Annotation not possible at this time due to unavailability of publication.)


The Natural History of a Spontaneous Therapy Group. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 4, 74-85.

Berne reports on his second major experience with formal group therapy, following 18 months of group therapy in the Army. “Spontaneous” means members started the group without referral from a doctor.  Berne reflects on this successful 5-year long group experience.


Group attendance: Clinical and theoretical considerations. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 5, 392-403.

This study contradicted almost all of Berne’s preconceptions concerning attendance in therapy groups. His tabulations reveal some remarkable consistencies among the five groups studied.


Intuition IV. Primal images and primal judgment. Psychiatric Quarterly, 29, 634-658.

The primal image and primal judgment are defined. Primal images are sometimes activated in interpersonal relationships and are related to the formation of basic judgments concerning people encountered.  The clinical value of using primal judgments is discussed. The fourth in Berne’s series of six articles on intuition.


Comparative psychiatry and tropical psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry,113, 193-200.

Comparative psychiatry defined as the study of psychiatric problems in one group as compared to those in another group. Results of such studies indicated that illnesses and treatments are similar in various parts of the world.


The psychological structure of space with some remarks on Robinson Crusoe. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 25, 549-567.

Interest in exploration, measurement, or utilization of space are sublimations, respectively, of oral, anal, and phallic attitudes.


Ego States in Psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 11(2), 293-309.

Structural analysis is presented as a new psychotherapeutic approach.


Intuition V. The ego image. Psychiatric Quarterly, 31, 611-627.

The ego image refers to an ego state.  Berne gives clinical examples of the value of ego states as guiding influences in therapy, recognizing the importance of separating “adult” from “child.”  The fifth in Berne’s series of six articles on intuition.


A Layman’s Guide Psychiatry and Psychoanalysis. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Originally published as The mind in action, 1947; third edition published 1968.


Group therapy abroad. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 8, 466-470.

Evidence tends to show the nature of psychiatric disorders and the response of patients to various forms of treatment is uniform across mankind. The therapeutic value of group therapy appears to be one of those universals.


Transactional Analysis: A new and effective method of group therapy. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 12, 735-743.

First published appearance of the term “transactional analysis.” A seminal article.


Difficulties of comparative psychiatry: The Fiji Islands. American Journal of Psychiatry, 116, 104-109.

Certain interpretations of Fiji Islands psychiatric data, which tend to give false conclusions, are discussed in detail.


The Mythology of Dark and Fair: Psychiatric use of folklore. Journal of American Folklore, 72(283), 1-13.

An analysis of racism; “White is good — black is evil.” Black and white are contrasted in the many ways this myth has affected our lives since 3066 B.C. A case is presented of a Spanish-American woman who suffered severely from having dark skin.


Principles of Transactional Analysis. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 215-221.

Berne wrote this as a corresponding member of the Indian Psychiatric Society.


Psychiatric epidemiology of the Fiji Islands. Progress in Psychotherapy, 4, 310-313. [New York: Grune & Stratton]

Statistics tend to indicate that “the stress of modern life” does not increase the tendency to seek psychiatric hospitalization.


The Cultural Problem: Psychopathology in Tahiti. American Journal of Psychiatry, 116, 1076-1081.


A psychiatric census of the South Pacific. American Journal of Psychiatry, 117, 44-47.


“Psychoanalytic” versus “dynamic” group therapy. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 10, 98-103.

Psychoanalysis and group therapy are two different therapies and need to be understood as such, especially by group therapists. Berne suggested calling group therapy “psychodynamic” or “dynamic,” but not “psychoanalytic.”


Cultural factors in group therapy. International Mental Health Research Newsletter, 3, 3-4.


Transactional Analysis in Psychotherapy: A systematic individual and social psychiatry. New York: Grove Press.

Often seen as Berne’s main contribution to transactional analysis theory and practice.


Classification of positions. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 1(3), 23.


In treatment. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 1(2), 10.


Intuition VI. The psychodynamics of intuition. Psychiatric Quarterly, 36, 294-300.

The sixth in Berne’s series of six articles on intuition.


The obesity “problem”. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 1(2), 11.


Teaching group therapy. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 1(2), 11.


Terminology. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 1(3), 24.


Ego. In Albert Deutsch & Helen Fishman (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Mental Health, Volume 11, (pp. 515-520). New York: Franklin Watts. 381pp.


Organizational History of the San Francisco Social Psychiatry Seminars.Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 2(5), 45.


The structure and dynamics of organizations and groups. New York: Grove Press.


Games People Play: The psychology of human relationships. New York: Grove Press.

The original complete elucidation of game theory.


The Intimacy Experiment. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 3(9), 113.


More about intimacy. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 3(10), 125.


Pathological significance of games. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 3(12), 160.


Principles of Transactional Analysis. Current Psychiatric Therapies, 4, 35-45.


Review: Four books on group therapy. American Journal Orthopsychiatry, 34, 584-589.


Trading stamps. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 3(10), 12


The public eye. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 4(16), 81.


Preliminary orientation: ITAA summer conference. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 5(20), 171-172.


Principles of group treatment. New York: Oxford University Press.


The public eye (continued). Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 5(17), 101-102.


The public eye (concluded). Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 5(18), 132.


Recent advances in Transactional Analysis. Current Psychiatric Therapies, 6, 114-124.


Notes on Games and Theatre: Eric Berne from an interview by Arthur Wagner. Tulane Drama Review, 11(4), 89-91.


Preliminary orientation: Fifth summer conference. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 6(24), 83.


The Happy Valley. New York: Grove Press.

A children’s book about a python named Shardlu who earns a living by being nice to people on Tuesday night and Friday morning. Berne’s first and only book for children.


History of the ITAA: 1958-1968. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 7(25), 19-20.

These first 10 years saw the spread and growth of TA as an international therapeutic method.


A Layman’s guide to psychiatry and psychoanalysis. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Originally published as The Mind in Action, 1947; second edition published in 1957 under the title, A Layman’s Guide to Psychiatry and Psychoanalysis.


Staff-patient staff conferences. American Journal of Psychiatry, 125(3), 286-293.

Describes a procedure whereby, following a ward meeting or group therapy session, the staff holds its professional conference — including treatment planning — in the presence of the patients.  If certain listed rules are followed and each member of the staff

speaks frankly and to the point, patients of all ages and diagnostic categories are almost unanimously appreciative. A few staff members find this procedure distasteful while others find it congenial, stimulating, and therapeutically valuable


Editor’s page. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 8(29), 7-8.

According to Berne, there are two crusades to undertake: 1) lower the infant mortality rate; and 2) increase our aesthetic standards.


Minimal basic science curriculum for clinical membership in the ITAA. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 8(32), 108-110.


Reparenting in Schizophrenia: Introduction. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 8(31), 45-47.

One element in curing a schizophrenic was missing from transactional analysis, game analysis, and script analysis — namely reparenting, using boldness, theoretical clarity, and devotion. “This the Schiffs have done.”


Reply to Dr. Shapiro’s critique. Psychological Reports, 25, 478.

In replying to a critique by Dr. Stewart Shapiro, Berne clarifies the concepts of ego states, inner dialogue, and “growth” in a sharp, effective manner. [Shapiro, S. (1969).

Critique of Eric Berne’s contributions to subself theory. Psychological Reports, 25, 283-296.]


Standard nomenclature. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 8(32), 111-112.


Eric Berne as group therapist. Roche Report: Frontiers of Hospital Psychiatry,7(10), 75-83.

Reprinted in the Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 9(35), 75-83.


Eric Berne as group therapist. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 9(35), 75-83.

Transcription of taped therapy session conducted by Berne at a closed ward of McAuley Neuropsychiatric Institute at St. Mary’s Hospital, San Francisco, 1970.

The observer method is used with two groups alternating as “patients” and “observers.”  Later reprinted in Muriel James (Ed.), Techniques in Transactional Analysis for Psychotherapists and Counselors (pp. 333-340). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.


Sex in Human Loving. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Serialized in the Ladies Home Journal beginning October 1970. Based on the 1966 Jake Gimbel Sex Lectures, University of California Medical Center, San Francisco, 1966.  Originally titled “Sex in Human Living”.  Published after Berne’s death.


Away from a theory of the impact of interpersonal interaction on non-verbal participation. Transactional Analysis Journal, 1(1), 6-13.


What Do You Say After You Say Hello? The Psychology of Human Destiny. New York: Grove Press.

Published posthumously, featuring a full discussion of scripts and how they function.


Transcription of Eric Berne in Vienna, 1968: IV International Congress of Group Psychotherapy. Transactional Analysis Journal, 3(1), 63-72.


(Eds. C. Steiner & C. Kerr). Beyond games and scripts: With selections from his major writings. New York: Grove Press.

Posthumous collection of Berne’s writings on transactional analysis.


(Ed. Paul McCormick).  Intuition and ego states: The origins of transactional analysis. SF: Harper & Row.

Posthumous collection of early papers, including the origins of transactional analysis.


Games People Play at Christmas. Transactional Analysis Journal, 8(4), 322-325.


Ego States in Psychotherapy. Texas Association for Counselling and Development, 17(2), 127-141.


A terminated case with follow-up. In Wedding, Danny & Corsini, Raymond I. (Eds.). Case studies in psychotherapy, xiv, 241pp. Itasca, Il: F. E. Peacock Pubs.


A Montreal Childhood. Sevilla: Editorial Jeder.

Posthumously published memoir edited by Terence (Terry) Berne, Eric Berne’s youngest of seven children.


Co-Authored Publications


Bernstein, Eric L. & Feitelson, Norman. Apprehension and Pain: The practical introspections of a psychiatrist. Journal of the American Dental Association, 28, 1129-1132.


Capt. Berne, E., Lt. Col. Stiles, Merrit H., & Maj. Pike, George M. Diagnosis of Acute Porphyria. Northwest Medicine (Seattle), 45(3), 166-169.


Berne, Eric, Starrels, R. J. and Trinchero, Agnes. Leadership hunger in a therapy group. American Medical Association Archives of General Psychiatry,2[Jan.], 75-80.

In an experimental situation, the absence of the leader for three consecutive meetings caused deterioration of the group performance and indicated profound psychological dependence on the leader.


Berne, E., Birnbaum, R., Poindexter, R., & Rosenfeld, B. Institutional games. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 1(2), 12-13.


Haiberg, Gordon., Sefness, W. R., & Berne, Eric. Destiny and script choices. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 2(6), 59-60.


Berne, E. & other discussants. Characterological aspects of marital interaction.Psychoanalytic Forum, 2, 7-29.


Berne, Eric, Harris, Thomas, Steiner, Claude & Hall, Norman [of Grove Press, Inc]. Writing for publication. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 8(32), 88-89.


Poindexter, W. Ray & Berne, Eric. Games prevent social progress. In: Hemmende Structuren in der Heutigen Industriegesellschaft. (Inhibiting structures in today’s industrial society). ZH: Switzerland: Buchdruckerei, Schuck Sohne AB, Rushchlikon. pp. 153-170.

The book has been published only in German.


Levin, Pamela & Berne, Eric. Games Nurses Play. American Journal of Nursing, 72(3), 483-487.


Berne, E., Steiner, C. M. & Dusay, J. M. Transactional analysis. In Ratibor-Ray M. Jurjevich (Ed.), Direct Psychotherapy: 28 American originals (pp. 370-393). Coral Gables, Florida: University of Miami Press.


Berne, E., Steiner, C. M. & Dusay, J. M. Transactional Analysis. In Groves, James E. (Ed.), Essential papers on short-term dynamic therapy (pp. 149-170). New York: New York University Press. (Reprinted by permission of Miami Press from Direct Psychotherapy: 28 American originals. Coral Gables, 1973, pp. 370-393)